Before to speak about the surgery is important to clarify that periodontal (gum) disease is a leading cause of tooth loss and maybe associated with other chronic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease. Gingivitis is a common inflammatory affection of the gums around teeth (but also implants) that causes the gums to become red, swollen, and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. It can be easily controlled with more efficient and regular personal hygiene measures. Professional hygienic therapy will help you get rid of this reversible disease.
Factors that may contribute to gingivitis include, diabetes, smoking, aging, genetic predisposition, systemic diseases and conditions, stress, inadequate nutrition, puberty, hormonal fluctuations, pregnancy, substance abuse, HIV infection, and certain medication use.
Untreated gingivitis can over time, or in patients with specific risk, develop into periodontitis, a more severe problem, leading to irreversible bone loss. In fact with time, plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. Toxins produced by the bacteria in plaque irritate the gums. The toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turns on itself, and the tissues and bone that support the teeth are broken down and destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth, forming pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. Eventually, teeth can become loose and may have to be removed.
Warning signs of gum disease can be the presence of bleeding gums during brushing, flossing or chewing hard food, redness and swelling gums or other pain in your mouth, bad breath (or halitosis) or pus between your gums and teeth. Also gums that are receding causing the teeth to look longer or a change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite must be considered.
The first treatment of periodontal disease consists in the removal of bacterial plaque through scaling and root planing (removal of tartar or plaque above and below the gum with manual or sonic instrumentation). Then other local irritants must be eliminated such as over contoured fillings, home oral hygiene must be improved and try to risky lifestyle habit changed, such as smoking.
When non-surgical periodontal treatment does not achieve periodontal health, surgery may be indicated to restore periodontal health. Periodontal surgery is necessary to fix the outcomes of the periodontitis and then to restore an architecture of the bone as physiological as possible.
A periodontal treatment as well as pre-prosthetic surgery is often mandatory to prepare the tissues for further restorative procedures.
Such procedures aim to restore tissue health or promote a better tissue configuration before receiving aesthetic restorations. Healthy tissues are the prerequisite for long-term success!